Facial care

Acne: causes and available treatments

Acne is a common condition that affects many people, especially during adolescence and young adulthood. Acne is the result of increased secretion of sebum in the sebaceous glands of the skin, which leads to clogged pores and the appearance of pimples, blackheads, and whiteheads. In this article, we'll look at the causes of acne and take a look at the treatments available.

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  •   Causes of acne:
  •   Available treatments for acne:
  •   Precautions:
  •   Conclusion:

Causes of acne


Acne is a common skin condition that occurs when hair follicles become clogged with oil and dead skin cells. Some of the main causes of acne include:

Excess oil production: When sebaceous glands produce too much oil, it can clog pores and lead to acne.

Clogged pores: Dead skin cells can mix with excess oil and clog hair follicles, creating an environment for acne-causing bacteria to grow.

Bacteria: Propionibacterium acne (P. acnes) is a type of bacteria that lives on the skin and can contribute to acne when pores become clogged.

Hormones: Fluctuations in hormone levels, such as puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, or stress, can stimulate sebaceous glands to produce more oil, leading to acne.

Inflammation: When hair follicles become clogged, it can lead to inflammation and the formation of pimples, nodules, or cysts.

Genetics: A family history of acne can increase the likelihood of developing the condition.

Certain medications: Certain medications, such as corticosteroids, androgens, or lithium, can trigger or worsen acne.

Diet: While the relationship between diet and acne is still being studied, some research suggests that certain foods, such as dairy products or foods high in blood sugar, may contribute to acne in some individuals.

  • Stress: Stress can worsen acne by stimulating hormonal changes that increase oil production and inflammation.
  • Cosmetics and skin care products: Using products that clog pores or are irritating can worsen acne.

Acne is a complex skin condition affected by multiple factors, including excess oil production, clogged pores, bacteria, hormonal changes, inflammation, genetics, medications, diet, stress, and skin care products. Understanding these contributing factors can help manage and treat acne effectively. If you suffer from acne, consider seeking advice from a dermatologist for personalized treatment options.


Available treatments for acne


Various acne treatments are available, ranging from over-the-counter products to prescription medications. Here is a summary of some common acne treatments:

Topical treatments: 

  1.  Benzoyl Peroxide: Kills bacteria, reduces inflammation, and helps unclog pores.
  2.  Salicylic acid: helps open pores and exfoliate the skin.
  3.  Retinoids (eg, tretinoin, adapalene): Help unclog pores and reduce inflammation.
  4.  Azelaic acid: Helps kill bacteria and reduce inflammation.
  5.   Sulfur: Helps reduce oil and clean pores. 

Oral medications

Antibiotics: Such as doxycycline, minocycline, or tetracycline, can help reduce bacteria and inflammation.

Birth control pills: They can help regulate hormones in women and improve acne.

Isotretinoin (Accutane): A powerful medication for treating severe acne. It reduces oil production and helps prevent acne scars.


       Chemical peeling: helps exfoliate the skin and clean the pores.
        Laser treatment: It can target bacteria and reduce oil production.
        Extraction: Manually removing blackheads and whiteheads by a dermatologist.

Home remedies:

      Tea tree oil: has antibacterial properties.
       Honey and cinnamon mask: It can help reduce inflammation.
       Green tea: contains antioxidants that can help reduce acne.


Acne prevention includes good skin care practices and lifestyle choices. Here are some precautions you can take to help prevent acne:

Cleanse your skin regularly: Wash your face twice daily with a gentle cleanser to remove excess oil, dirt and sweat that can clog pores and lead to acne.

Avoid over-washing: Although it is important to keep your skin clean, over-washing can strip your skin of its natural oils and make acne worse. Commit to washing your face twice a day.

Use non-comedogenic products: Choose skin care and makeup products that are labeled “non-comedogenic,” meaning they will not clog your pores.

Moisturizing: Even if you have oily skin, it is important to moisturize to keep your skin hydrated. Look for oil-free or non-comedogenic moisturizers.

Avoid touching your face: Touching your face can transfer dirt, oil, and bacteria from your hands to your face, which can cause pimples. Try to avoid touching your face unnecessarily.

Manage stress: Stress can contribute to acne, so finding healthy ways to manage stress, such as exercise, meditation, or deep breathing, can help prevent acne.

Eat a balanced diet: Eating a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins can help promote clear skin. Avoiding sugary and fatty foods may also help prevent acne.

Stay hydrated: Drink plenty of water to keep your skin hydrated and help flush out toxins.

Protect your skin from the sun: Excessive exposure to the sun can damage the skin and may worsen acne. Use a non-comedogenic sunscreen daily, especially if you will be spending time outside.

Don't mess with your skin: Picking or popping pimples can lead to scarring and further inflammation. Let the acne heal on its own or seek help from a dermatologist.

Acne is a common condition that affects many people, especially during adolescence, and can leave negative effects on the skin, such as scars. Therefore, it is important to follow some preventive measures to prevent scars from forming and maintain healthy and clean skin.

 You must pay attention to personal hygiene and keep your facial skin clean on a daily basis. It is recommended to wash your face regularly using a mild cleanser and lukewarm water, and avoid using harsh chemical products that may cause skin irritation.

 You should avoid forcefully squeezing pimples or blackheads, as this may cause tissue damage and increase the possibility of scarring. Instead, it is best to let the pimples disappear naturally or consult a dermatologist for appropriate treatment.

 It is important to use skin care products that contain ingredients such as salicylic acid, which is an anti-inflammatory and helps reduce the size of pimples and prevent scarring.

Direct exposure to sunlight should also be avoided, as excessive exposure to the sun may increase skin irritation and scar formation. Therefore, it is recommended to wear sunscreen when going out during bright days.

In addition, you must be careful to eat a healthy, balanced diet that contains fruits, vegetables, and water in sufficient quantities, as good nutrition plays an important role in skin health and preventing acne.

In the end, if acne causes you persistent problems and scars on the skin, it is necessary to consult a dermatologist to evaluate the condition and direct you towards the appropriate treatment, whether it is drug treatment or cosmetic procedures.

In short, keep your skin clean, use the right products, and avoid exposure to touching factors

Dermatological procedures to improve or remove acne scars

There are many dermatological procedures that can help improve or remove acne scars. The choice of procedure depends on the type and severity of scarring. Here are some common dermatological procedures used to improve or remove acne scars:

  1. Laser treatment: Different types of laser treatments can help improve the appearance of acne scars by rejuvenating the skin's surface, stimulating collagen production, and softening scarred areas. Fractional lasers, carbon dioxide lasers and erbium lasers are commonly used for this purpose.
  2. Microneedling: Also known as collagen induction therapy, this involves using a device with fine needles to create small punctures in the skin. This stimulates collagen production and helps improve the texture and appearance of acne scars.
  3. Chemical Peeling: Chemical peeling involves applying a chemical solution to the skin to exfoliate the upper layers and improve the appearance of acne scars. Superficial, medium and deep peels are available, depending on the depth of the scars.
  4. Dermabrasion: Dermabrasion is a procedure that involves removing the upper layers of skin using a rotating brush or diamond wheel. This helps soften the skin and reduce the appearance of acne scars.
  5. Microdermabrasion: Similar to microdermabrasion, microdermabrasion exfoliates the skin using a handheld device with a diamond tip or fine crystals. It is a less invasive procedure that can help improve mild acne scars.
  6. Fillers: Injectable fillers can be used to fill sunken acne scars and improve their appearance. Substances such as hyaluronic acid are commonly used for this purpose.
  7. Puncture excision: This procedure involves cutting out individual acne scars and stitching the skin back together. It is usually used for deep scars resulting from ice piercing.
  8. Exfoliation: Exfoliation is a technique used to loosen the fibrous bands that bind the skin and cause acne scars. By loosening these bands, the skin can be lifted and the appearance of scars improved.
  9. Cryotherapy: Cryotherapy involves freezing scar tissue with liquid nitrogen to help improve the appearance of raised or keloid scars.

It is important to consult a dermatologist or skin care specialist to determine the most appropriate treatment option for your type of acne scars. The effectiveness of these procedures may vary depending on the individual and the type of scarring

Summary about acne scars

Acne scars are marks that appear on the skin after acne has healed. They can be annoying to some and affect the appearance of the skin. Here are some key points about acne scars:

There are several types of acne scars, including keratotic scars (icepick scars) that are deep and thin, wavy scars (rolling scars) that are wavy, and broad scars (train scars) that are wide and flat.

Risk factors: Factors such as not treating acne properly, lack of early intervention, and harsh exfoliation habits may increase the likelihood of scarring.

Prevention: To reduce the formation of scars, it is important to treat acne effectively, not squeeze pimples, and effectively protect the structure from exposure to sunlight.

Scar treatment: There are many options for treating acne scars, including topical treatments such as creams and cosmetic sessions such as laser and microneedling.

Consulting a doctor: It is important to consult a dermatologist to evaluate the type of scars and suggest the best treatment option to improve the appearance of the skin.

Patience and care: Results may not be immediate with scar treatment, but patience and continuation of treatments and advice may lead to a noticeable improvement in the appearance of scars over time.

When you take an approach that includes skin care, acne care, and seeking the right treatment, you can improve the appearance of your acne scars and increase your confidence in the appearance of your skin.


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